Depression Is A Treatable Illness
From the National Institute of Mental Health
Depressive illnesses, even the most severe cases, are highly treatable disorders. As with many illnesses, the earlier that treatment can begin, the more effective it is and the greater the likelihood that a recurrence of the depression can be prevented.
The first step to getting appropriate treatment is to visit a doctor. Certain medications, and some medical conditions such as viruses or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression. In addition, it is important to rule out depression that is associated with another mental illness called bipolar disorder. A doctor can rule out these possibilities by conducting a physical examination, interview, and/or lab tests, depending on the medical condition. If a medical condition and bipolar disorder can be ruled out, the physician should conduct a psychological evaluation or refer the person to a mental health professional.
The doctor or mental health professional will conduct a complete diagnostic evaluation. He or she should get a complete history of symptoms, including when they started, how long they have lasted, their severity, whether they have occurred before, and if so, how they were treated. He or she should also ask if there is a family history of depression. In addition, he or she should ask if the person is using alcohol or drugs, and whether the person is thinking about death or suicide.
Once diagnosed, a person with depression can be treated with a number of methods. The most common treatment methods are medication and psychotherapy.
Antidepressants work to normalize naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, notably serotonin and norepinephrine. Other antidepressants work on the neurotransmitter dopamine. Scientists studying depression have found that these particular chemicals are involved in regulating mood, but they are unsure of the exact ways in which they work.
The newest and most popular types of antidepressant medications are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and include:
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
- Sertraline (Zoloft)
- Paroxetine (Paxil)
- Escitalopram (Lexapro)
- Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are similar to SSRIs and include:
- Venlafaxine (Effexor)
- Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
SSRIs and SNRIs tend to have fewer side effects and are more popular than the older classes of antidepressants, such as tricyclics — named for their chemical structure — and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). However, medications affect everyone differently. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to medication. Therefore, for some people, tricyclics or MAOIs may be the best choice.
People taking MAOIs must adhere to significant food and medicinal restrictions to avoid potentially serious interactions. They must avoid certain foods that contain high levels of the chemical tyramine, which is found in many cheeses, wines and pickles, and some medications including decongestants. Most MAOIs interact with tyramine in such a way that may cause a sharp increase in blood pressure, which may lead to a stroke. A doctor should give a person taking an MAOI a complete list of prohibited foods, medicines and substances.
For all classes of antidepressants, people must take regular doses for at least three to four weeks, sometimes longer, before they are likely to experience a full effect. They should continue taking the medication for an amount of time specified by their doctor, even if they are feeling better, to prevent a relapse of the depression. The decision to stop taking medication should be made by the person and her doctor together, and should be done only under the doctor's supervision. Some medications need to be gradually stopped to give the body time to adjust. Although they are not habit-forming or addictive, abruptly ending an antidepressant can cause withdrawal symptoms or lead to a relapse. Some individuals, such as those with chronic or recurrent depression, may need to stay on the medication indefinitely.
In addition, if one medication does not work, people should be open to trying another. Research funded by NIMH has shown that those who did not get well after taking a first medication often fared better after they switched to a different medication or added another medication to their existing one.
Sometimes other medications, such as stimulants or antianxiety medications, are used in conjunction with an antidepressant, especially if the person has a coexisting illness. However, neither antianxiety medications nor stimulants are effective against depression when taken alone, and both should be taken only under a doctor's close supervision.
What About St. John's Wort?
The extract from the herb St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a bushy, wild-growing plant with yellow flowers, has been used for centuries in many folk and herbal remedies. Today in Europe, it is used extensively to treat mild to moderate depression. In the United States, it is a top-selling botanical product.
To address increasing American interest in St. John's wort, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of the herb in treating adults suffering from major depression. Involving 340 patients diagnosed with major depression, the eight-week trial randomly assigned one-third of them to a uniform dose of St. John's wort, one-third to a commonly prescribed SSRI, and one-third to a placebo. The trial found that St. John's wort was no more effective than the placebo in treating major depression. Another study is underway to look at the effectiveness of St. Johnís wort for treating mild or minor depression.
Other research has shown that St. John's wort can interact unfavorably with other drugs, including drugs used to control HIV infection. On February 10, 2000, the FDA issued a Public Health Advisory letter stating that the herb appears to interfere with certain drugs used to treat heart disease, depression, seizures, certain cancers, and organ transplant rejection. The herb also may interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Because of these and other potential interactions, people should always consult their doctors before taking any herbal supplement.
Several types of psychotherapy — or "talk therapy" — can help people with depression.
Some regimens are short-term (10 to 20 weeks) and other regimens are longer-term, depending on the needs of the individual. Two main types of psychotherapies — cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) — have been shown to be effective in treating depression. By teaching new ways of thinking and behaving, CBT helps people change negative styles of thinking and behaving that may contribute to their depression. IPT helps people understand and work through troubled personal relationships that may cause their depression or make it worse.
For mild to moderate depression, psychotherapy may be the best treatment option. However, for major depression or for certain people, psychotherapy may not be enough. Studies have indicated that for adolescents, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the most effective approach to treating major depression and reducing the likelihood for recurrence. Similarly, a study examining depression treatment among older adults found that patients who responded to initial treatment of medication and IPT were less likely to have recurring depression if they continued their combination treatment for at least two years.
For cases in which medication and/or psychotherapy does not help alleviate a person's treatment-resistant depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be useful. ECT, formerly known as "shock therapy," used to have a negative reputation. But in recent years, it has greatly improved and can provide relief for people with severe depression who have not been able to feel better with other treatments.
Before ECT is administered, a patient takes a muscle relaxant and is put under brief anesthesia. She does not consciously feel the electrical impulse that is administered. A person typically will undergo ECT several times a week, and often will need to take an antidepressant or mood stabilizing medication to supplement the ECT treatments and prevent relapse. Although some people will need only a few courses of ECT, others may need maintenance ECT, usually once a week at first, then gradually decreasing to monthly treatments for up to one year.
ECT may cause some short-term side effects, including confusion, disorientation and memory loss. But these side effects typically clear shortly after treatment. Research has indicated that after one year of ECT treatments, patients showed no adverse cognitive effects. A person should weigh the potential risks and benefits of ECT and discuss them with her doctor before deciding to undergo ECT treatment.
What Efforts Are Under Way To Improve Treatment?
Researchers are looking for ways to better understand, diagnose and treat depression among all groups of people. New possible treatments, such as faster-acting antidepressants, are being tested that give hope to those who live with difficult-to-treat depression. Researchers are studying the risk factors for depression and how it affects the brain. NIMH continues to fund cutting-edge research into this debilitating disorder.